SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|12 Months Ended|
Nov. 30, 2018
|SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES [Text Block]||
NOTE 2 - SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
The accounting policies adopted are generally consistent with those of the previous financial year.
a. Use of Estimates in the Preparation of Financial Statements
The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the financial statement date and the reported expenses during the reporting periods. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
b. Business Combination
The Company allocates the purchase price of an acquired business to the tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed based upon their estimated fair values on the acquisition date. Any excess of the purchase price over the fair value of the net assets acquired is recorded as goodwill. Acquired in-process backlog, customer relations, brand name and know how are recognized at fair value. The purchase price allocation process requires management to make significant estimates and assumptions, especially at the acquisition date with respect to intangible assets. Direct transaction costs associated with the business combination are expensed as incurred. The allocation of the consideration transferred in certain cases may be subject to revision based on the final determination of fair values during the measurement period, which may be up to one year from the acquisition date. The Company includes the results of operations of the business that it has acquired in its consolidated results prospectively from the date of acquisition.
If the business combination is achieved in stages, the acquisition date carrying value of the acquirer’s previously held equity interest in the acquire is re-measured to fair value at the acquisition date; any gains or losses arising from such re-measurement are recognized in profit or loss.
c. Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all short term, highly liquid investments, which include short term bank deposits with original maturities of three months or less from the date of purchase, that are not restricted as to withdrawal or use and are readily convertible to known amounts of cash, to be cash equivalents.
d. Bank Deposits
Bank deposits with maturity of more than one year are considered long-term. The fair value of bank deposits approximates the carrying value since they bear interest at rates close to the prevailing market rates.
e. Research and Development, net
Research and development expenses include costs directly attributable to the conduct of research and development programs, including the cost of salaries, stock-based compensation expenses, payroll taxes and other employees' benefits, lab expenses, consumable equipment and consulting fees. All costs associated with research and developments are expensed as incurred. Participation from government departments and from research foundations for development of approved projects is recognized as a reduction of expense as the related costs are incurred.
f. Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its Subsidiaries. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.
g. Non-Marketable Equity Investments
The Company’s investments in certain non-marketable equity securities in which it has the ability to exercise significant influence, but does not control through variable interests or voting interests These are accounted for under the equity method of accounting and presented as Investment in associates, net, in the Company’s consolidated balance sheets. Under the equity method, the Company recognizes its proportionate share of the comprehensive income or loss of the investee. The Company’s share of income and losses from equity method investments is included in share in losses of associated company.
The Company reviews its investments accounted for under the equity method for possible impairment, which generally involves an analysis of the facts and changes in circumstances influencing the investments.
h. Functional Currency
The currency of the primary economic environment in which the operations of the Company and part of its Subsidiaries are conducted is the U.S. dollar (“$” or “dollar”). The functional currency of the Belgian Subsidiaries is the Euro (“€” or “Euro”). The functional currency of CureCell is the Won (“KRW”). Most of the Company’s expenses are incurred in dollars, and the source of the Company’s financing has been provided in dollars. Thus, the functional currency of the Company and its other subsidiaries is the dollar. Transactions and balances originally denominated in dollars are presented at their original amounts. Balances in foreign currencies are translated into dollars using historical and current exchange rates for nonmonetary and monetary balances, respectively. For foreign transactions and other items reflected in the statements of operations, the following exchange rates are used: (1) for transactions – exchange rates at transaction dates or average rates and (2) for other items (derived from nonmonetary balance sheet items such as depreciation) – historical exchange rates. The resulting transaction gains or losses are recorded as financial income or expenses. The financial statements of the Belgian Subsidiaries and CureCell are included in the consolidated financial statements, translated into U.S. dollars. Assets and liabilities are translated at year-end exchange rates, while revenues and expenses are translated at yearly average exchange rates during the year. Differences resulting from translation of assets and liabilities are presented as other comprehensive income.
The Company’s inventory consists of raw material for use for the services provided. The Company periodically evaluates the quantities on year end. Cost of the raw materials is determined using the weighted average cost method.
j. Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are recorded at cost and depreciated by the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the related assets.
Annual rates of depreciation are presented in the table below:
Intangible assets and their useful lives are as follows:
Intangible assets are recorded at acquisition cost less accumulated amortization and impairment. Definite lived intangible assets are amortized over their estimated useful life using the straight-line method, which is determined by identifying the period over which the cash flows from the asset are expected to be generated.
Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price of acquired business over the estimated fair value of the identifiable net assets acquired. Goodwill is not amortized but is tested for impairment at least annually (at November 30), at the reporting unit level or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that the asset might be impaired. The goodwill impairment test is applied by performing a qualitative assessment before calculating the fair value of the reporting unit. If, on the basis of qualitative factors, it is considered not more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting unit is less than the carrying amount, further testing of goodwill for impairment would not be required. Otherwise, goodwill impairment is tested using a two-step approach.
The first step involves comparing the fair value of the reporting unit to its carrying amount. If the fair value of the reporting unit is determined to be greater than its carrying amount, there is no impairment. If the reporting unit's carrying amount is determined to be greater than the fair value, the second step must be completed to measure the amount of impairment, if any. The second step involves calculating the implied fair value of goodwill by deducting the fair value of all tangible and intangible assets, excluding goodwill, of the reporting unit from the fair value of the reporting unit as determined in step one. The implied fair value of the goodwill in this step is compared to the carrying value of goodwill. If the implied fair value of the goodwill is less than the carrying value of the goodwill, an impairment loss equivalent to the difference is recorded. There were no impairment charges in 2018 and 2017.
l. Impairment of Long-lived Assets
The Company reviews its property and equipment, intangible assets subject to amortization and other long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset class may not be recoverable. Indicators of potential impairment include: an adverse change in legal factors or in the business climate that could affect the value of the asset; an adverse change in the extent or manner in which the asset is used or is expected to be used, or in its physical condition; and current or forecasted operating or cash flow losses that demonstrate continuing losses associated with the use of the asset. If indicators of impairment are present, the asset is tested for recoverability by comparing the carrying value of the asset to the related estimated undiscounted future cash flows expected to be derived from the asset. If the expected cash flows are less than the carrying value of the asset, then the asset is considered to be impaired and its carrying value is written down to fair value, based on the related estimated discounted cash flows. There were no impairment charges in 2018 and 2017.
m. Revenue Recognition
The Company recognizes revenue for services linked to cell process development and cell manufacturing services based on individual contracts in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 605, Revenue Recognition, when the following criteria have been met: persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists; delivery of the processed cells has occurred or the services that are milestones based have been provided; the price is fixed or determinable and collectability is reasonably assured. The Company determines that persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists based on written contracts that define the terms of the arrangements. In addition, the Company determines that services have been delivered in accordance with the arrangement. The Company assesses whether the fee is fixed or determinable based on the payment terms associated with the transaction and whether the sales price is subject to refund or adjustment. Service revenues are recognized as the services are provided. In addition, as part of the services, the Company recognizes revenue based on use of consumables, which it received as reimbursement on a cost-plus basis on certain expenses.
n. Financial Liabilities Measured at Fair Value
1) Fair Value Option
Topic 815 provides entities with an option to report certain financial assets and liabilities at fair value with subsequent changes in fair value reported in earnings. The election can be applied on an instrument by instrument basis. The Company elected the fair value option to its convertible bonds. The liability is measured both initially and in subsequent periods at fair value, with changes in fair value charged to finance expenses, net (See Note 17).
Embedded derivatives are separated from the host contract and carried at fair value when (1) the embedded derivative possesses economic characteristics that are not clearly and closely related to the economic characteristics of the host contract and (2) a separate, standalone instrument with the same terms would qualify as a derivative instrument. The derivative is measured both initially and in subsequent periods at fair value, with changes in fair value charged to finance expenses, net. As to embedded derivatives arising from the issuance of convertible debentures (See Note 17).
o. Income Taxes
1) With respect to deferred taxes, income taxes are computed using the asset and liability method. Under the asset and liability method, deferred income tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the differences between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities and are measured using the currently enacted tax rates and laws. A valuation allowance is recognized to the extent that it is more likely than not that the deferred taxes will not be realized in the foreseeable future.
2) The Company follows a two-step approach to recognizing and measuring uncertain tax positions. The first step is to evaluate the tax position for recognition by determining if the available evidence indicates that it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained on examination. If this threshold is met, the second step is to measure the tax position as the largest amount that is greater than 50% likely of being realized upon ultimate settlement.
3) Taxes that would apply in the event of disposal of investment in Subsidiaries have not been taken into account in computing the deferred income taxes, as it is the Company’s intention to hold these investments and not realize them.
p. Stock-based Compensation
The Company accounts for employee stock-based compensation in accordance with the guidance of ASC Topic 718, Compensation - Stock Compensation , which requires all share-based payments to employees, including grants of employee stock options, to be recognized in the financial statements based on their grant date fair values. The fair value of the equity instrument is charged to compensation expense and credited to additional paid in capital over the period during which services are rendered. The Company recorded stock based compensation expenses using the straight line method.
The Company follows ASC Topic 505-50, Equity-Based Payments to Non-Employees , for stock options issued to consultants and other non-employees. In accordance with ASC Topic 505-50, these stock options issued as compensation for services provided to the Company are accounted for based upon the fair value of the options. The fair value of the options granted is measured on a final basis at the end of the related service period and is recognized over the related service period using the straight-line method.
q. Redeemable Non-controlling Interest
Non-controlling interests with embedded redemption features, whose settlement is not at the Company’s discretion, are considered redeemable non-controlling interest. Redeemable non-controlling interests are considered to be temporary equity and are therefore presented as a mezzanine section between liabilities and equity on the Company's consolidated balance sheets. Subsequent adjustment of the amount presented in temporary equity is required only if the Company's management estimates that it is probable that the instrument will become redeemable. Adjustments of redeemable non-controlling interest to its redemption value are recorded through additional paid-in capital.
r. Loss per Share of Common Stock
Basic net loss per share is computed by dividing the net loss for the period by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding for each period. Diluted net loss per share is based upon the weighted average number of common shares and of common shares equivalents outstanding when dilutive. Common share equivalents include: (i) outstanding stock options warrants which are included under the treasury share method when dilutive, and (ii) common shares to be issued under the assumed conversion of the Company’s outstanding convertible loans, which are included under the if-converted method when dilutive (See Note 14).
s. Concentration of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentration of credit risk consist of principally cash and cash equivalents, bank deposits and certain receivables. The Company held these instruments with highly rated financial institutions and the Company has not experienced any significant credit losses in these accounts and does not believe the Company is exposed to any significant credit risk on these instruments apart of accounts receivable. The Company performs ongoing credit evaluations of its customers for the purpose of determining the appropriate allowance for doubtful accounts. An appropriate allowance for doubtful accounts is included in the accounts and netted against accounts receivable. In the year ended November 30, 2018 the Company has not experienced any material credit losses in these accounts and does not believe it is exposed to significant credit risk on these instruments. In the year ended November 30, 2017, the Company has recorded an allowance of $897 thousand.
Bad debt allowance is created when objective evidence exists of inability to collect all sums owed it under the original terms of the debit balances. Material customer difficulties, the probability of their going bankrupt or undergoing economic reorganization and insolvency or material delays in payments are all considered indicative of reduced debtor balance value.
t. Beneficial Conversion Feature (“BCF”)
When the Company issues convertible debt, if the stock price is greater than the effective conversion price (after allocation of the total proceeds) on the measurement date, the conversion feature is considered "beneficial" to the holder. If there is no contingency, this difference is treated as issued equity and reduces the carrying value of the host debt; the discount is accreted as deemed interest on the debt (See Note 8).
u. Other Comprehensive Loss
Other comprehensive loss represents adjustments of foreign currency translation.
v. Newly issued and recently adopted Accounting Pronouncements
1) In January 2016, the FASB issued guidance on recognition and measurement of financial assets and financial liabilities (ASU No. 2016-01) that will supersede most current guidance. Changes to the U.S. GAAP model primarily affect the accounting for equity investments, financial liabilities under the fair value option and the presentation and disclosure requirements for financial instruments. In addition, the FASB clarified guidance related to the valuation allowance assessment when recognizing deferred tax assets resulting from unrealized losses on available-for-sale debt securities. The accounting for other financial instruments, such as loans, investments in debt securities, and financial liabilities, is largely unchanged. The classification and measurement guidance became effective as of December 1, 2018. The Company does not expect to have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
2) In May 2014, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2014-09 “Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606)” (“Topic 606”) that will supersede most current revenue recognition guidance, including industry specific guidance. Under the new standard, a good or service is transferred to the customer when (or as) the customer obtains control of the good or service, which differs from the risk and rewards approach under current guidance. The guidance provides a five-step analysis of transactions to determine when and how revenue is recognized. Other major provisions include capitalization of certain contract costs, consideration of the time value of money in the transaction price and allowing estimates of variable consideration to be recognized before contingencies are resolved in certain circumstances. The guidance also requires enhanced disclosures regarding the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from an entity’s contracts with customers. The guidance is effective in annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim reporting periods within that reporting period. The Company will implement the guidance for our annual period ending on December 31, 2019 and interim periods within such annual periods, using the modified retrospective method and will adjust the accumulated deficit and deferred revenue as of the adoption date.
Under current GAAP, the Company recognizes revenue for services linked to cell process development based on both the input and output methods of measurement. The Company has evaluated the application of the requirements of ASC 606 to recognize revenue when or as the entity satisfies a performance obligation to its business. The Company has several types of revenue contracts:
a) Cell process development services
The Company has concluded that under the revised standard, contracts for cell process development services are in some cases a single performance obligation (where promises offered to customers are not distinct within the context of the contract), and in other cases have multiple performance obligations (where promises to the customers are distinct). In all cases the performance obligations are satisfied over time. Under the new standard, the Company will recognize revenue over time using either a cost-based input method or output method, whichever fairly depicts the transfer of control over the life of the performance obligation, as appropriate.
b) Cell manufacturing services
Regarding revenues from cell manufacturing services, the Company concluded that these comprised a single performance obligation. The progress towards completion will continue to be measured on an output measure based on direct measurement of the value transferred to the customer (units produced).
c) Tech transfer
The Company has concluded that under the revised standard contracts for Tech Transfer services are considered a single performance obligation and will be measured over time using a cost-based input method where progress on the performance obligation is measured by the proportion of actual costs incurred to the total costs expected to complete the contract.
The cost-based and output methods of revenue recognition require the Company to make estimates of costs to complete its projects and the percentage of completion on an ongoing basis. Significant judgment is required to evaluate assumptions related to these estimates. The effect of revisions to estimates related to the transaction price (including variable consideration relating to reimbursement on a cost-plus basis on certain expenses) or costs to complete a project are recorded in the period in which the estimate is revised. The adoption of th enew standard is not expected to result in a material effect on the total stockholders' equity as of December 1, 2018.
3) In November 2016, the FASB issuedASU 2016-18, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Restricted Cash (a Consensus of the FASB Emerging Issues Task Force) (“ASU 2016-18”), which requires entities to include amounts generally described as restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents in cash and cash equivalents when reconciling beginning-of-period and end-of-period total amounts shown on the statement of cash flows. ASU 2016-18 is effective for annual reporting periods (including interim periods within those annual reporting periods) beginning after December 15, 2017. The Company adopted this standard during the year ended November 30, 2018.
4) In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, “Leases (Topic 842)” (“ASU 2016-02”), which supersedes the existing guidance for lease accounting, “Leases (Topic 840)”. ASU 2016-02 requires lessees to recognize leases on their balance sheets, and leaves lessor accounting largely unchanged. The amendments in ASU 2016-02 are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018 and interim periods within those fiscal years. Early application is permitted for all entities. ASU 2016-02 requires a modified retrospective approach for all leases existing at, or entered after, the date of initial application, with an option to elect to use certain transition relief. The Company expects to apply the ASU without adjusting the comparative periods and, if applicable, recognizing a cumulative effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings in the period of adoption. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this new standard on its consolidated financial statements.
5) In June 2016, the FASBissued ASU 2016-13, “Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326)” (“ASU 2016-13”). ASU 2016-13 requires that financial assets measured at amortized cost be presented at the net amount expected to be collected. The allowance for credit losses is a valuation account that is deducted from the amortized cost basis. The income statement reflects the measurement of credit losses for newly recognized financial assets, as well as the expected credit losses during the period. The measurement of expected credit losses is based upon historical experience, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts that affect the collectability of the reported amount. Credit losses relating to available-for-sale debt securities will be recorded through an allowance for credit losses rather than as a direct write-down to the security. ASU 2016-13 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted as of the fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years. The Company does not expect to have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
6) In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-09, “Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Scope of Modification Accounting” (“ASU 2017-09”), which gives direction on which changes to the terms or conditions of share-based payment awards require an entity to apply modification accounting in Accounting Standard Codification (“ASC”) Topic 718. In general, entities will apply the modification accounting guidance if the value, vesting conditions or classification of the award changes. ASU 2017-09 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in an interim period. The Company does not expect the implementation of this new pronouncement to have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
7) In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-07, “Compensation – Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Nonemployee Share-based Payment Accounting” that expands the scope of ASC Topic 718 to include share-based payment transactions for acquiring goods and services from nonemployees. An entity should apply the requirements of ASC Topic 718 to nonemployee awards except for certain exemptions specified in the amendment. The guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim reporting periods within that fiscal year. Early adoption is permitted, but no earlier than an entity’s adoption date of Topic 606. The Company don’t expect to have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
8) In January 2017, FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) 2017-04, Intangibles—Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment, which eliminated the calculation of implied goodwill fair value. Instead, companies will record an impairment charge based on the excess of a reporting unit’s carrying amount of goodwill over its fair value. This guidance simplifies the accounting as compared to prior GAAP. The guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019. The Company does not expect the implementation of this new pronouncement to have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef